Walton, John. Reluctant Rebels, Columbia University Press, 1984

"Neighboring El Salvador (to Nicaragua) at the time of this writing is in full revolt. As in the historical studies, current events have a long pedigree including a savagely repressed rebellion in 1932. Teh Salvadoran economy is a classic instance of export monoculture based on coffee plantations whose land was alienated from Indian communities beginning in the 1870's and linked into a national network by a planter elite in collaboration with the military. The rebellion of 1932 was carried out by worker, peasant, and Indian communities that had organized a popular movement around the Regional Federation of Salvadorean Workers and won important electoral victories, which the government refused to recognize." pg 205 The gov't attempted to adopt reforms to change the country which was aided by the U.S. particularly after the Cuban Revolution. "But the military-coffee planter elite was challenged continually at the polls in the 1960s and in 1972 was forced again to invalidate fraudulently an electoral sweep by the United National Opposition that included everyone from the Christian Democrats to the far left. The current revolutionary situation is a violent consequence of efforts by teh old elite and the United States to maintain an unpopular and repressive state under the transparent rationale of a centrist junta and contrived elections whose popular support is belied by every development in national politics over the last fifty years. This is a revolution whose progressive fate in being withheld only by U.S. military intervention." pg 206

He attempts to show through examining Huk and Mau Mau revolutions and the La Violencia the use of violence that "today's revolutions may be theoretically connected with the national revolts of mid-century, and they in turn are closely associated with the classical revolutions- then the implication is that a more comprehensive theory of capitalist transformation is possible...The next step may be understanding socialist revolution in the twin senses of those changing world conditions that lead more national revolts along a socialist road, as well as the new prospect of revolutions within the existing socialist states." pg 210.

He examines four general and interrelated processes:

1. the context of uneven development

2. the conditions of protest mobilization

3. modernization crises and coalitions

4. the role of the state. pg 161

Marx, Karl. Reflections of a Youth on Choosing an Occupation 1835

"To man, too, the Deity gave a general goal, to improve mankind and himself, but left it up to him to seek the means by which he can attain this goal, left it up to him to choose the position in society which is most appropriate and from which he can best elevate both himself and society." pg 1.

"What else does this (irrationality) mean except that God exists for the man to whom the world is non-rational and who is therefore nonrational himself? In other words, non-rationality is God's existence."pg 66
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