In contemporary world we cannot start a professional activity, change a job or
company, or even continue the existing job without the ability to write an attractive and
proper resume emphasizing our positive characteristics.  We are sure that what we have
put on this page can facilitate the importance and solve problems related with this activity.

Designing Your Resume


A resume is a self-marketing tool, designed with the goal of obtaining a job interview.
Resume information is targeted succinctly to a career field and addresses the needs of
a specific employer. Your resume should market your relevant skills, knowledge, and


It will be difficult to begin the process of writing your resume unless you identify the
career field and types of employers that will be the focus of your job search. When you
know how you will use the resume, then you will be able to write an effective,
targeted resume that gets results. You will likely spend a considerable amount of time
developing your resume, choosing the right words and phrases to describe your
marketable skills and experiences. It is not uncommon to write several revisions
before arriving at the final version.

One-page resumes are preferred for most entry-level positions. Two-page resumes
are acceptable if the information on both pages demonstrates the skills and/ points.

Employers who read individual resumes spend very little time on each resume-in most
cases, only twenty to thirty seconds. Many large employers are now using optical
scanning machines and various software programs to assist them with this initial

Types of Resumes

Information related to skills and experiences can be presented in a chronological
format, a functional format, or a combination of the two. Each format has its
advantages and disadvantages. To select the type which best supports your strategy,
review the following descriptive information and resume samples.

Chronological Resume

In the chronological resume, job history is organized chronologically with the most
recent job listed first. Job titles and employers are emphasized and duties and
accomplishments are described in detail. A chronological resume is easy to read, and
can highlight career growth. It is suited to those whose career goals are clearly
defined and whose job objectives are aligned with their work history.

A chronological resume is advantageous when:

your recent employers and/or job titles are impressive;
you are staying in the same career field;
your job history shows progress;
you are working in a field where traditional job search methods are utilized (e.g.,
education, government).

A chronological resume is not advantageous when:

you are changing career fields;
you have changed employers frequently;
you want to de-emphasize age;
you have been recently absent from the job market or have gaps in employment.

Functional Resume

In a functional resume, skills and accomplishments developed through work,
academic, and community experiences are highlighted. Your skills and potential can
be stressed and lack of experience or possible gaps in work history de-emphasised.

The functional resume is advantageous when:

you want to emphasize skills not used in recent work experience;
you want to focus on skills and accomplishments rather than a lengthy
employment history;
you are changing careers/re-entering the job market;
you want to market skills and experience gained through coursework and/or
volunteer experience;
your career growth in the past has not been continuous and progressive;
you have a variety of unrelated work experiences;
your work has been free-lance, consulting, or temporary in nature.

The functional resume is not advantageous when:

you have little work experience or leadership experience;
you want to emphasize promotions and career growth;
you are working in highly traditional fields, such as teaching, accounting, and
politics, where employers should be highlighted.

Combination Resume

This format combines the elements of the chronological and functional types. It
presents patterns of accomplishments and skills in categorical sections or a single
section called "Qualifications Summary." It also includes a brief work history and
education summary. This format is advantageous for those who wish to change to a
job in a related career field or strategically promote their most marketable skills.

Constructing Your Resume

Categories of information you include on your resume should provide
answers to these questions:

Contact section
Who are you and how can you be reached?
Objective statement
What do you want to do?
Experience section
What can you do?
Education section
What have you learned?
Employment section
What have you done?

Sequence the categories according to what is most important to the employer and
your career objective. A recent college graduate with limited experience will usually
put the education section first since it is the most significant qualification. Education
will also be listed first when it is a qualifying requirement, as in the case of teaching,
law, medicine, or engineering. If an applicant wants to emphasize significant work or
leadership experience, or apply for jobs in fields such as sales, public relations, or
merchandising, it may be useful to present the experience or employment sections

Contact information

Begin your resume with your name by capitalizing and using bold type.
Include street address, city, state, and zip code.
Include phone number(s) where you can be reached weekdays, 9 a.m.-5 p.m.
Designate your home phone with an "H," and work number with "W," or a
"Messages" number.
Add an e-mail address if it is checked regularly.

Career/Job Objective

The purpose of the objective statement is to inform the employer of your career goal
and targeted interests. The statement should describe the focus of your job search. If
your resume is broader, relay the most relevant objective in an accompanying cover
letter. A good objective includes type and/or level of position, type and style of
organization, and skills/qualifications.

A career/job objective is advantageous when:

You want to specify your interests and where you would fit in the organization.
You want to present the impression of a focused, self-confident person.

A career/job objective is not advantageous when it is:

Too broad and meaningless, reflecting indecision.
Too exclusive, eliminating you from jobs for which you might be considered.

Qualifications or Experience Summary

A summary of qualifications can condense an extensive background by emphasizing
experiences and accomplishments in brief keyword phrases. The qualifications
summary is accomplishment-oriented and provides an overview of your work
experience. It can also serve to summarize relevant academic, volunteer and
leadership experience for those who have limited work experience. A summary is
most appropriate for someone with substantial experience, for someone who is
changing careers and wants to demonstrate transferable skills, or for someone with a
varied background. Scannable resumes also rely on accomplishment statements. If
you know your resume will be electronically scanned, consider a summary.


Accomplished editor, news reporter and promotional writer. Demonstrated skills
in project management and staff development.
Two years' experience as office administrator; four years' teaching experience
living abroad; two and one-half years' high school teaching experience; M.B.A. in
International Business and Information Systems; B.A. Mathematics; French
language fluency.


If your education relates to your objective and is within the past three years, it should
be the first section. If not, education should follow the work experience section of
your resume.

Start with your most recent degree or the program in which you are currently
enrolled. List other degrees or relevant education in reverse chronological order.
Highlight your degree by using bold type or capital letters.
If the degree is relevant to your job objective, begin with degree and emphasis,
followed by university, location of university, and date of graduation or
anticipated date of graduation.


M.S., Communications Engineering, The George Washington University,
Washington, DC, May 1996.

If degree/program is not directly related to current job objective, begin with the
university, followed by the location, degree and emphasis, and graduation date.
If you are within two semesters of graduation, do not use "expected" or
"anticipated" with month/year of graduation.
If you have a high GPA, include it on your resume. You may want to highlight
your GPA on a new line as illustrated on page 60, or in an education can be used
to highlight coursework, research, study abroad experience, leadership and
student activities that complements your objective.
Consider listing relevant coursework under the appropriate degree.


Relevant coursework:
Investment and Portfolio Management
Advanced Financial Management
Marketing Research
International Banking

An alternative to highlighting courses is to list the skills and knowledge
acquired through important courses and research.


Developed model investment portfolio for Fortune 500 company.
Analyzed stock market trends using state-of-the-art computer simulation
Invested innovative capital formations strategies at metropolitan Washington
area investment firms.
Designed promotional campaign for new consumer product in a targeted

You may want to describe research or design projects.


Design Projects: RF radio control, Laser and Microwave Amplifiers,
Transmission Lines
Research: "Brazilian Economic Policies Beyond the Coffee Exports"
"U.S. Foreign Policy: Transition in Latin America"

Employment Experience (Chronological)

Begin with your current/most recent position and work backward,
chronologically. Devote more space to recent employment.
If your job titles relate to your current job objective, start each position
description with job titles. If not, begin with the organization.
Follow job title and organizational information with the organization's city
and state.
Use the first and last month and year to describe dates of employment.


Telecommunications Engineering Aide, Centre for Telecommunications
Studies, Washington, DC, September 1990-January 1996

Describe the last three to five positions in detail. Summarize earlier positions
unless relevant to your objective.
Do not show every position change with each employer. Only list in detail the
most recent job and briefly summarize promotions.
Do not repeat skills that are common to several positions.
Within each listed position, stress the major accomplishments and
responsibilities that demonstrate your competency. It is not necessary to
include all responsibilities, as they will be assumed by employers.
Tailor your position descriptions to future job/career objectives.

If writing a two-page resume, make sure the most marketable information is on
the first page.

Employment Experience (Functional)

Use two to four sections to summarize each area of functional skill or
Develop the functional skill headings based on the skills you want to market
to employers and/or that are most related to your targeted objective.
Describe your skills in short phrases and place under the appropriate
functional skill categories.
Rank the phrases within each category and place the most important skill or
accomplishment first.


Reported on-the-spot news stories for suburban Washington newspapers.
Provided in-depth coverage of Capitol Hill issues, including unemployment
compensation and merit pay for teachers.
Edited and marketed a brochure for a cultural/educational program designed
to focus on life in London. Resulted in a 30% increase in program

Do not identify employers within functional skills sections.
List a brief history of your actual work experience at the end of the section,
giving job title, employer and dates. If you have had no work experience or a
very spotty work record, leave out the employment section entirely or
summarize the nature of your jobs without providing specific details. If you
do this, be prepared to discuss your specific jobs in more detail at the job

Both chronological and functional resumes must be succinct, emphasizing your
experience and accomplishments. Resumes are often your first introduction to the
employer and dramatically impact the screening process. Invest the time to create an
excellent marketing tool - your resume - to increase job opportunities and career

Sample Resumes-Chronological

James Herbert

Current Address:
600 20th St., NW
Washington, DC 20052
(202) 676-0402

Permanent Address:
241 Elm Avenue
Reading, PA 17011
(717) 451-7374


The George Washington University, Washington, DC.
School of Business and Public Management (SBPM)
B.B.A., International Business; Concentration: Finance, May 1996.

Relevant Coursework

Business Finance
International Finance
International Business
International Marketing
Fundamentals of Management
Financial Statement Analysis

Work Experience:

Intern: Broker's Assistant, (Sept. - Apr. 1993-1994)
Merrill Lynch, Washington, DC
Assisted broker in diversifying portfolios for clients.
Researched companies with Value Line.
Organized financial information packets.
Established and maintained clients' files.

International Experience:

International-Span Program, (Jun. - Jul. 1995) Language program in Venezuela
Experienced the culture through home stay, studied Spanish at an intensive
language institute, and travelled throughout the country.
American Field Service (AFS), (Jun. - Aug. 1991) Exchange Student to Costa Rica
Experienced the culture through university classes, home stay, and
excursions throughout the country.


Intermediate fluency in Spanish.

Competent in the use of Apple Macintosh and IBM PCs. WordPerfect , Microsoft Word,
Quattro Pro, Basic DOS, Internet and E-mail.


Organized fundraising events for business retreat.
Chinese Culture Club - Member.
U.S. Health Care Convention - Assisted with crowd control.

Sample Resumes-Functional

Denise Martin
501 G Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
(202) 676-8309


Extensive and diverse health care experience in both acute care and research hospital
settings. Knowledgeable of current regulatory standards, biomedical technology, and
medico-legal considerations. Strong background in designing, implementing, and
directing patient care programs. Experience with hospital information systems.


Administered all operations for in-patient and ambulatory patient care units.
Managed unusual incidents related to personnel functions and medical care.
Acted as liaison between medical and nursing staffs.
Supervised two to four para-professionals.
Participated in auditing medical records for compliance with accreditation
Administered in-service educational programs.


Collected data for research studies and protocols.
Incorporated findings into clinical applications.
Collaborated in development of clinical investigations.


Assessed, planned, implemented, and evaluated holistic care for diverse patient
Designed, administered, and directed teaching programs.
Worked extensively with biomedical technology.


Master of Health Services Administration, The George Washington University,
Washington, DC, January 1987.
BS in Nursing, Hampton Institute, Hampton, VA, May 1976.


The National Institutes of Health, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Centre, Bethesda,
MD, Clinical Nurse (May 1980-present).
Michael Reece Medical Centre, Chicago, IL, Staff Nurse (May 1979-April 1980).
University of Chicago Medical Centre, Chicago, IL, Staff Nurse (September 1976-May

Sample Resumes-Combined

2600 Eye Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20037
Bus: (301) 978-1602
Res: (202) 547-9000


Extensive knowledge of computer software design and implementation.
Comprehensive management experience of professional teams and individuals.
Expertise in program development for telecommunications and manufacturing
Skilled at communicating technical and non-technical materials to audiences,
peers and administrators.
Effective negotiator on contracts and with outside vendors.


Management Systems Analyst, Provere Corporation, Manassas, VA
Develop over twenty software programs to date to maximize user efficiency and
communication. Supervise a staff of six technicians with responsibility for
troubleshooting including program debugging. June 1989-present
Technical Assistant, Pacific Bell Telephone, San Jose, CA
Worked with other members of the technical staff to develop a data network for
overseas communication. September 1985-August 1987
Sales Associate, Handyware Technologic, San Francisco, CA June 1983-April 1985


M.S., Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, May
B.S., Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, June 1985



Review existing systems to enhance design of a Data Communication Network.
Interact with manufactures and other clients to develop interactive programs for
users. Team-designed a hotline system utilized by four hospitals to maximize
emergency care. Develop a comprehensive hands-on orientation program for new


Co-ordinate computer automation activities for a 150-employee company. Supervise
15 professional and support staff and schedule staff assignments. Assist Department
manager with long range planning goals and implementation. Plan negotiations with
military and other prospective contractors.



Example 1


Personal Information:


Schauneckstr. 1
72525 Münsingen
Tel. +49(0)7381-2138


To write my thesis with a company in the
e-commerce business


8/97 - present
Fachhochschule Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe
University of Technology)
Major: Business Information Systems

8/96 - 12/97
Eastern Michigan University, College of

3/95 - 8/96
Fachhochschule Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe
University of Technology)
Major: Computer Science for Business
"Vordiplom" (successful completion of
lower-division requirements) Grade Point
Average: 1.4 (very good)

1992 - 1993
"Berufskolleg" Bad Urach (Business School)
Examinations/Degrees: "Fachhochschulreife"
(entrance requirement for German
universities). GPA: 1.5 (very good)

Practical Experience:

1/97 - present
Internship at InterFirst (a division of
Standard Federal Bank)

12/93 - 2/95
Community Service as an alternative to
Military Service at a school for disabled

1991 - 1992
Volksbank Münsingen e. G.
Bank clerk responsible for bank guarantees

1988 - 1991
Volksbank Münsingen e. G.
Occupational training at a bank
Graduation as qualified bank clerk

Other Experience:

German (native), English (good), French (fair)
Visual C++, Visual Basic, SQL, Pascal, and

In Germany: Elected member of the student
body of the faculty, Tutor for analysis
Photography, Cinema, and Reading